Glossary


H
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A

ABV
Alcoholic strength by volume. A figure for this is required to be stated on the labels of beverages containing more than 1.2% by volume of alcohol.

Advertisement
This includes any notice, circular, invoice or other document, and any public announcement made orally or by any means of producing or transmitting light or sound, but does not include any form of labelling, and 'advertise' shall be construed accordingly.

Appropriate durability indication
In the case of a food other than one specified in sub paragraph (b) of this definition, an indication of minimum durability, and in the case of a food which, from the microbiological point of view, is highly perishable and in consequence likely after a short period to constitute an immediate danger to human health, a "use by" date.

Aromatised wine
As described in Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 251/2014.



B

Batch
In the context of the giving of meat origin information, fresh, chilled or frozen meat of pigs, sheep, goats or poultry, obtained from a single species, with or without bone, whether or not cut or minced, that has been cut, minced or packed under practically identical conditions.

Biscuits
This includes wafers, rusks, oatcakes and matzos.



C

Carbohydrate
This means any carbohydrate which is metabolised in man and includes polyols.

Carriers
Substances used to dissolve, dilute, disperse or otherwise physically modify a food additive or a flavouring, food enzyme, nutrient and/or other substance added for nutritional or physiological purposes to a food without altering its function (and without exerting any technological effect themselves) in order to facilitate its handling, application or use.

Caterer
See 'Mass caterer'.

Catering establishments
A restaurant, canteen, club, public house, school, hospital or similar establishment (including a vehicle or a fixed or mobile stall) where, in the course of a business, food is prepared for delivery to the ultimate consumer and is ready for consumption without further preparation.

Cheese
The fresh or matured product intended for sale for human consumption, which is obtained as follows:
(a) in the case of any cheese other than whey cheese, by the combining, by coagulation or by any technique involving coagulation, of any of the following substances, namely milk, cream, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk, concentrated skimmed milk, reconstituted dried milk, butter milk, materials obtained from milk, other ingredients necessary for the manufacture of cheese provided that those are not used for replacing, in whole or in part, any milk constituent, with or without partially draining the whey resulting from coagulation;
(b) in the case of whey cheese -
(i) by concentrating whey with or without the addition of milk and milk fat, and moulding such concentrated whey, or
(ii) by coagulating whey with or without the addition of milk and milk fat.

Children, young
Children aged between one and three years.

Clotted cream
Cream which has been produced and separated by the scalding, cooling and skimming of milk or cream.

Compound ingredient
An ingredient composed of 2 or more ingredients.

Community controlled wine
Wine, grape must, sparkling wine, aerated sparkling wine, liqueur wine, semi-sparkling wine and aerated semi-sparkling wine.

Country of origin
The country from which a food originates as determined in accordance with Articles 23 to 26 of Regulation (EEC) No 2913/92 establishing the Community Customs Code. Goods can be said to originate in a country when they are wholly obtained or produced in that country. Goods whose production involves more than one country are deemed to originate in the country in which they undergo their last, substantial, economically justified processing resulting in the manufacture of a new product or representing an important stage of manufacture. The name or address of the food business operator on the label does not fulfil any requirement for the country of origin or place of provenance of a food to be given on its label.

Cream
That part of cows' milk rich in fat which has been separated by skimming or otherwise and which is intended for sale for human consumption.

Cream crackers
This product is not defined in legislation but the name is generally understood in the UK to refer to light, fawn-coloured unsweetened biscuits made from flour, fat, water and salt. They are usually eaten with cheese. The name may be a customary name when used for products of this type. The name is exempt from the EU dairy designations legislation which generally prevents dairy names from being used in names for products when they do not contain the dairy ingredient in question.

Cream, sterilised
Cream which has been subjected to a process of sterilisation by heat treatment in the container in which it is to be supplied to the consumer.



D

Distance selling
Selling without the simultaneous physical presence of the supplier and the consumer, and includes telephone sales, mail order and home shopping via the internet.



E

Edible ice
Includes ice-cream, water ice and fruit ice, whether alone or in combination, and any similar food.



F

Fancy name
A name mainly used to market a food rather than give potential buyers absolute clarity about what it is. Fancy names may be short on detail but must not be misleading. The term is not defined in the FIC. A fancy name is not a legally acceptable descriptive name, but conceivably could become a legally acceptable customary name over time.

Fat
In the context of nutrition labelling, means total lipids, and includes phospholipids.

FIC
The 'Food Information to Consumers' Regulation: Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004.

Field of vision
All the surfaces of a package that can be read from a single viewing point.

Final consumer
The ultimate consumer of a foodstuff who will not use the food as part of any food business operation or activity.

Fishery products
All seawater or freshwater animals (except for live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods, and all mammals, reptiles and frogs) whether wild or farmed and including all edible forms, parts and products of such animals.

Flavourings
Products:
(i) not intended to be consumed as such, which are added to food in order to impart or modify odour and/or taste;
(ii) made or consisting of the following categories: flavouring substances, flavouring preparations, thermal process flavourings, smoke flavourings, flavour precursors or other flavourings or mixtures thereof.
The following are not flavourings:
(i) substances which have exclusively a sweet, sour or salty taste;
(ii) raw foods;
(iii) non-compound foods and mixtures such as, but not exclusively, fresh, dried or frozen spices and/or herbs, mixtures of tea and mixtures for infusion as such as long as they have not been used as food ingredients.

Follow-on formulae
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional use by infants when appropriate complementary feeding is introduced and constituting the principal liquid element in a progressively diversified diet of such infants.

Food or foodstuff
Any substance or product, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be ingested by humans. 'Food' includes drink, chewing gum and any substance, including water, intentionally incorporated into the food during its manufacture, preparation or treatment. It includes water after the point of compliance as defined in Article 6 of Directive 98/83/EC and without prejudice to the requirements of Directives 80/778/EEC and 98/83/EC.
'Food' shall not include:
(a) feed;
(b) live animals unless they are prepared for placing on the market for human consumption;
(c) plants prior to harvesting;
(d) medicinal products within the meaning of Council Directives 65/65/ EEC and 92/73/EEC;
(e) cosmetics within the meaning of Council Directive 76/768/EEC;
(f) tobacco and tobacco products within the meaning of Council Directive 89/622/EEC;
(g) narcotic or psychotropic substances within the meaning of the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971;
(h) residues and contaminants.

Food additive
Any substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food, whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result, in it or its by-products becoming directly or indirectly a component of such foods.

Food business
Any undertaking, whether for profit or not and whether public or private, carrying out any of the activities related to any stage of production, processing and distribution of food.

Food business operator
The natural or legal persons responsible for ensuring that the requirements of food law are met within the food business under their control.

Food enzyme
A product obtained from plants, animals or micro-organisms or products thereof including a product obtained by a fermentation process using micro-organisms:
(i) containing one or more enzymes capable of catalyzing a specific biochemical reaction; and
(ii) added to food for a technological purpose at any stage of the manufacturing, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage of foods.

Food information law
The Union provisions governing food information, and in particular labelling. Includes rules of a general nature applicable to all foods in particular circumstances, or to certain categories of foods, and rules which apply only to specific foods.

Food for a particular nutritional use
A food intended for human consumption which owing to its special composition or process of manufacture, is clearly distinguishable from food intended for normal human consumption is suitable for its claimed particular nutritional purpose, and is sold in such a way as to indicate that suitability.

Food law
The laws, regulations and administrative provisions governing food in general, and food safety in particular, whether at Community or national level; it covers any stage of production, processing and distribution of food, and also of feed produced for, or fed to, food-producing animals.

Formulae, follow-on
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional use by infants when appropriate complementary feeding is introduced and constituting the principal liquid element in a progressively diversified diet of such infants.

Formulae, infant
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional use by infants during the first months of life and satisfying by themselves the nutritional requirements of such infants until the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.

FSA
Food Standards Agency.



G

Grape must
Has the meaning assigned to it by Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 822/87 on the common organisation of the market in wine.



I

Ice, edible
Includes ice-cream, water ice and fruit ice, whether alone or in combination, and any similar food.

Infant
Children under the age of twelve months.

Infant formulae
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional use by infants during the first months of life and satisfying by themselves the nutritional requirements of such infants until the introduction of appropriate complementary feeding.

Ingredient
Any substance, including any additive and any constituent of a compound ingredient, which is used in the preparation of a food and which is still present in the finished product, even if in altered form.

Intense sweetener
An additive with a sweetness many times that of sucrose, which is virtually non-calorific and used solely for its sweetening properties.

Ionising radiation
Any gamma rays, x rays or corpuscular radiations which are capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly other than those rays or radiations
(a) which are emitted by measuring or inspection devices,
(b) which are emitted at an energy level no higher than the appropriate maximum level, and
(c) the dose of energy imparted by which does not exceed 0.5Gy,
and for the purposes of this definition the appropriate maximum level is 10 MeV in the case of x rays and 5 MeV otherwise.

Irradiated
Subjected to treatment by ionising radiation.



L

Labelling
In relation to a food, includes any words, particulars, trade mark, brand name, pictorial matter or symbol relating to the food and appearing on the packaging of the food or on any document, notice, label, ring or collar accompanying the food.

Legibility
The physical appearance of information, by means of which the information is visually accessible to the general population and which is determined by various elements: inter alia; font size; letter spacing; spacing between lines; stroke width; type colour; typeface; width-height ratio of the letters; the surface of the material and significant contrast between the print and the background.

Liqueur wine
(a) In relation to a drink produced in the European Community, has the meaning assigned to it by Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 822/87, and
(b) in relation to a drink originating from elsewhere, has the meaning assigned to it by Article 2 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2391/89.



M

Mandatory food information
The particulars that are required to be provided to the final consumer by Union provisions.

Mandatory particulars
The list of food information items listed in Article 9(1) of the FIC: the name of the food; the list of ingredients; the allergen labelling; the quantifying of certain ingredients; the durability date; the storage conditions and conditions of use; the business name and address; the origin statement; the instructions for use; the ABV for alcoholic beverages; and the nutrition declaration.

Mass caterer
Any establishment (including a vehicle or a fixed or mobile stall), such as restaurants, canteens, schools, hospitals and catering enterprises in which, in the course of a business, food is prepared to be ready for consumption by the final consumer. This is the definition from the FIC: despite the use of the word 'mass', the definition is intended to include even very small caterers operating commercially with continuity and organisation.

Means of distance communication
Any means which, without the simultaneous physical presence of the supplier and the consumer, may be used for the conclusion of a contract between those parties.

Meat
Edible parts, including blood, of the following animals: domestic ungulates (domestic bovine, porcine, ovine and caprine animals, and domestic solipeds), poultry, lagomorphs (rabbits, hares and rodents), wild game, farmed game, small wild game and large wild game.

Meat preparations
Fresh meat, including meat that has been reduced to fragments, which has had foodstuffs, seasonings or additives added to it or which has undergone processes insufficient to modify the internal muscle fibre structure of the meat and thus to eliminate the characteristics of fresh meat.

Meat products
Processed products resulting from the processing of meat or from the further processing of such processed products, so that the cut surface shows that the product no longer has the characteristics of fresh meat.

Milk
The milk intended for sale, or sold, for human consumption of
(a) one or more cows, and includes skimmed milk, semi-skimmed milk and whole milk, or
(b) one or more ewes, goats or buffaloes.

Milk chocolate
The product obtained from cocoa products, sugars and milk or milk products with levels of total dry cocoa solids, dry milk solids, dry non-fat cocoa solids, milk fat and total fat (cocoa butter and milk fat) above minima laid down in the EU Directive (2000/36/EC) on cocoa and chocolate products.

Minced meat
Boned meat that has been minced into fragments and contains less than 1% salt.

Monosaturates
Fatty acids with one cis double bond.



N

Natural mineral water
Has the meaning assigned to it by the Natural Mineral Water, Spring Water and Bottled Drinking Water Regulations 1999.

Net quantity
The net quantity of a food is expressed using litres, centilitres, millilitres, kilograms or grams, as appropriate:
(a) in units of volume in the case of liquid products;
(b) in units of mass in the case of other products.

Nutrient
Carbohydrate, fat, fibre, sodium, vitamins and minerals listed in point 1 of Part A of Annex XIII to the FIC, and substances which belong to or are components of one of those categories.

Nutritional claim
Any statement, suggestion or implication in any labelling, presentation or advertising of a food that that food has particular nutrition properties, but does not include a reference to any quality or quantity of any nutrient where such reference is required by law.

Nutritional labelling
In relation to a food (other than a natural mineral water or other water intended for human consumption or any food supplement) means any information appearing on labelling (other than where such appears solely as part of a list of ingredients) and relating to energy value or any nutrient or to energy value and any nutrient, including any information relating to any substance which belongs to, or is a component of, a nutrient.

Nutritional properties
Either or both of
(a) the provision (including provision at a reduced or increased rate), or the lack of provision, of energy,
(b) the content (including content in a reduced or increased proportion), or the lack of content, of any nutrient (including any substance which belongs to, or is a component of, a nutrient).



O

OJ
Official Journal of the European Union: where EU Regulations and Directives are published.

P

Particular nutritional purpose
The fulfilment of the particular nutritional requirements of:
(a) a person whose digestive processes are, or whose metabolism is, disturbed, or
(b) a person whose physiological condition renders him able to obtain a special benefit from the controlled consumption of any substance in food, or
(c) infants or young children in good health.

Place of provenance
Any place where a food is indicated to come from, and that is not the 'country of origin'. The name or address of the food business operator on the label does not fulfil any requirement for the country of origin or place of provenance of a food to be given on its label.

Placing on the market
The holding of food or feed for the purpose of sale, including offering for sale or any other form of transfer, whether free of charge or not, and the sale, distribution, and other forms of transfer themselves.

Polyunsaturates
Fatty acids with cis, cis-methylene interrupted double bonds.

Prepacked food
Any single item for presentation as such to the final consumer and to mass caterers, consisting of a food and the packaging into which it was put before being offered for sale, whether such packaging encloses the food completely or only partially, but in any event in such a way that the contents cannot be altered without opening or changing the packaging; 'prepacked food' does not cover foods packed on the sales premises at the consumer's request or prepacked for direct sale.

Prepacked for direct sale
This is not defined in the Food Information to Consumers Regulation ('FIC', No.1169/2011). A workable definition may continue to be that which was given in the Food Labelling Regulations 1996, which the FIC replaces:
(a) in relation to a food other than flour confectionery, bread, edible ices and cows' milk, pre-packed by a retailer for sale by the retailer on the premises where the food is packed or from a vehicle or stall used by the retailer,
(b) in relation to flour confectionery, bread and edible ices, pre-packed by a retailer for sale as in sub-paragraph (a) of this definition, or pre-packed by the producer of the food for sale by them either on the premises where the food is produced or on other premises from which they conduct business under the same name as the business conducted on the premises where the food is produced, and
(c) in relation to cows' milk, put into containers on the premises where the milk is produced by the person owning or having control of the herd from which the milk is produced for sale by them on those premises or from a vehicle or stall used by them.

Preparation
In relation to food, includes manufacture and any form of processing or treatment.

Prepared fishery products
Means unprocessed fishery products that have undergone an operation affecting their anatomical wholeness, such as gutting, heading, slicing, filleting, and chopping.

Prescribed nutrition labelling
Nutrition labelling given in accordance with Schedule 7.

Processed products
Foodstuffs resulting from the processing of unprocessed products. These products may contain ingredients that are necessary for their manufacture or to give them specific characteristics.

Processing
Any action that substantially alters the initial product, including heating, smoking, curing, maturing, drying, marinating, extraction, extrusion or a combination of those processes.

Processing aid
Any substance which:
(i) is not consumed as a food by itself;
(ii) is intentionally used in the processing of raw materials, foods or their ingredients, to fulfil a certain technological purpose during treatment or processing; and
(iii) may result in the unintentional but technically unavoidable presence in the final product of residues of the substance or its derivatives provided they do not present any health risk and do not have any technological effect on the final product.

Process flavouring
A product which is obtained according to good manufacturing practices by heating to a temperature not exceeding 180°C for a continuous period not exceeding 15 minutes a mixture of ingredients (whether or not with flavouring properties) of which at least one contains nitrogen (amino) and another is a reducing sugar.

Protein
The protein content calculated using the formula: protein = total Kjeldahl nitrogen x 6.25.



R

Raw milk
In relation to cows' milk, has the meaning assigned to it by Article 3(1) of Council Regulation (EC) No. 2597/97 laying down additional rules on the common organisation of the market in milk and milk products for drinking milk, and in relation to the milk of ewes, goats or buffaloes means milk which has neither been heat-treated beyond 40°C nor undergone any treatment having the same effect.

Recommended daily allowance
In relation to a vitamin or mineral, means the recommended daily allowance specified for that vitamin or mineral in column 2 of Table A or B in Schedule 6.

Retail
The handling and/or processing of food and its storage at the point of sale or delivery to the final consumer, and includes distribution terminals, catering operations, factory canteens, institutional catering, restaurants and other similar food service operations, shops, supermarket distribution centres and wholesale outlets.



S

Saturates
Fatty acids without double bonds.

Sell
Includes offer or expose for sale and have in possession for sale, and 'sale' and 'sold' shall be construed accordingly.

Smoke flavouring
An extract from smoke of a type normally used in food smoking processes.

Sparkling wine, aerated sparkling wine, semi-sparkling wine and aerated semi-sparkling wine
In relation to drinks:
(a) produced in the European Community, have the meanings respectively assigned to them by Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 822/87, and
(b) produced elsewhere, have the meanings respectively assigned to them by Article 2 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2391/89.

Spirit drink
For the purposes of Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 on the definition, description, presentation, labelling and the protection of geographical indications of spirit drinks, an alcoholic beverage:
(a) intended for human consumption;
(b) possessing particular organoleptic qualities;
(c) having a minimum alcoholic strength of 15 % vol.;
(d) having been produced:
(i) either directly:
— by the distillation, with or without added flavourings, of naturally fermented products, and/or
— by the maceration or similar processing of plant materials in ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin and/or distillates of agricultural origin, and/or spirit drinks within the meaning of this Regulation, and/or
— by the addition of flavourings, sugars or other sweetening products listed in Annex I(3) and/or other agricultural products and/or foodstuffs to ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin and/or to distillates of agricultural origin and/or to spirit drinks, within the meaning of this Regulation,
(ii) or by the mixture of a spirit drink with one or more:
— other spirit drinks, and/or
— ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin or distillates of agricultural origin, and/or
— other alcoholic beverages, and/or
— drinks.
However, drinks falling within CN codes 2203, 2204, 2205, 2206 and 2207 shall not be considered spirit drinks.

Sterilised cream
Cream which has been subjected to a process of sterilisation by heat treatment in the container in which it is to be supplied to the consumer.

Sugars
In the context of nutrition labelling, means all monosaccharides and disaccharides present in food, but excludes polyols.



T

Treating
In relation to disease, includes doing or providing anything for alleviating the effects of the disease, whether it is done or provided by way of cure or not.

Trimmings
In the context of the giving of meat origin information, small pieces of fresh, chilled or frozen meat of pigs, sheep, goats or poultry, recognised as fit for human consumption and produced exclusively during trimming operations, when boning of carcases or when cutting up of meat.



U

Ultimate consumer
Any person who buys otherwise than:
(a) for the purpose of resale,
(b) for the purposes of a catering establishment, or
(c) for the purposes of a manufacturing business.

Unprocessed products
Foodstuffs that have not undergone processing, and includes products that have been divided, parted, severed, sliced, boned, minced, skinned, ground, cut, cleaned, trimmed, husked, milled, chilled, frozen, deep-frozen or thawed.



W

Whole milk
In relation to cows' milk, has the meaning assigned to it by Article 3(1) of Council Regulation (EC) No. 2597/97.

Wine
Has the meaning assigned to it by Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 822/87.



Y

Young children
Children aged between one and three years.